Opening Keynote Presentation

Alan Blinder
Gordon S. Rentschler Memorial Professor of Economics and Public Affairs
Princeton University

Alan S. Blinder is the Gordon S. Rentschler Memorial Professor of Economics and Public Affairs at Princeton University. He is also Vice Chairman of the Promontory Interfinancial Network, and a regular columnist for The Wall Street Journal.

Dr. Blinder Dr. Blinder served as Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from June 1994 until January 1996. In this position, he represented the Fed at various international meetings, and was a member of the Board's committees on Bank Supervision and Regulation, Consumer and Community Affairs, and Derivative Instruments. He also chaired the Board in the Chairman's absence. He speaks frequently to financial and other audiences.

Before becoming a member of the Board, Dr. Blinder served as a Member of President Clinton's original Council of Economic Advisers from January 1993 until June 1994. There he was in charge of the Administration's macroeconomic forecasting and also worked intensively on budget, international trade, and health care issues. During the 2000 and 2004 presidential campaigns, he was an economic adviser to Al Gore and John Kerry, and he continues to advise numerous members of Congress and officeholders. He also served briefly as Deputy Assistant Director of the Congressional Budget Office when that agency started in 1975, and testifies frequently before Congress on a wide variety of public policy issues.

Dr. Blinder was born on October 14, 1945, in Brooklyn, New York. He earned his A.B. at Princeton University in 1967, M.Sc. at London School of Economics in 1968, and Ph.D. at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1971—all in economics. Dr. Blinder has taught at Princeton since 1971, and chaired the Department of Economics from 1988 to 1990. He was the Founder and either the Director or Co-Director of Princeton’s Center for Economic Policy Studies from 1989 to 2011.

Dr. Blinder is the author or co-author of 20 books, including the textbook Economics: Principles and Policy (with William J. Baumol), now in its 12th edition, from which well over two and a half million college students have learned introductory economics. His latest book, After the Music Stopped: The Financial Crisis, the Response, and the Work Ahead, was published in January 2013 (Penguin Press). He has written scores of scholarly articles on such topics as fiscal policy, central banking, offshoring, and the distribution of income. He also appears frequently on PBS, CNBC, CNN, Bloomberg TV, and elsewhere.

Dr. Blinder was previously President of the Eastern Economic Association and Vice President of the American Economic Association. He is a member of the board of the Council on Foreign Relations, a member of the Economic Club of New York, the Bretton Woods Committee, and the Bellagio Group, and a former governor of the American Stock Exchange. Dr. Blinder also serves on academic advisory panels for the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the Hamilton Project.

He has been elected a Distinguished Fellow of the American Economic Association, and a member of the American Philosophical Society, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, the American Academy of Political and Social Science.

Dr. Blinder and his wife, Madeline, live in Princeton, NJ. They have two sons, Scott and William, and two grandsons, Malcolm and Levi.

Sources of Growth

Brad DeLong
Professor of Economics
University of California, Berkeley

Brad DeLong is a professor of economics at U.C. Berkeley, chair of the Political Economy of Industrial Societies major, and a research associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He was educated at Harvard University, where he received his PhD in 1987. He joined UC Berkeley as an associate professor in 1993. He became a full professor in 1997. Professor DeLong also served in the U.S. government as Deputy Assistant Secretary of the Treasury for Economic Policy from 1993 to 1995. He worked on the Clinton Administration's 1993 budget, on the Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, on the North American Free Trade Agreement, on macroeconomic policy, and on the unsuccessful health care reform effort. Before joining the Treasury Department, Professor DeLong was Danziger Associate Professor in the Department of Economics at Harvard University. He has also been a John M. Olin Fellow at the National Bureau of Economic Research, an Assistant Professor of Economics at Boston University, and a Lecturer in the Department of Economics at M.I.T.

E.J. Dionne, Jr.
Professor, Georgetown Public Policy Institute
Columnist, The Washington Post

Washington Post columnist E.J. Dionne, Jr. excels in defining for readers the strengths and weaknesses of competing political philosophies. His analysis of American politics and trends of public sentiment is recognized as among the best in the business. He believes America is about to enter a new progressive era, a period of reform in government and renewed civic activism in our communities.

Dionne spent fourteen years with the New York Times, reporting on state and local government, national politics, and from around the world, including stints in Paris, Rome, and Beirut. The Los Angeles Times praised his coverage of the Vatican as the best in two decades.

In 1990, Dionne joined the Washington Post as a reporter, covering national politics. His best-selling book, Why Americans Hate Politics (Simon & Schuster), was published in 1991. The book, which Newsday called “a classic in American political history,” won the Los Angeles Times book prize, and was a National Book Award nominee.

Dionne began his op-ed column for the Post in 1993, and it is syndicated to more than ninety other newspapers. He is a regular political analyst on National Public Radio and a regular commentator on politics on various television and radio broadcasts.

His second book, They Only Look Dead: Why Progressives Will Dominate the Next Political Era (Simon & Schuster), was published in February 1996. Dionne’s third book Stand Up Fight Back: Republican Toughs, Democratic Wimps, and the Politics of Revenge (Simon & Schuster) was published May 2004.

He is the editor of Community Works: The Revival of Civil Society in America (Brookings Press, 1998), and What's God Got to Do with the American Experiment (Brookings Press, 2000), co-edited with John DiIulio, Jr. Dionne co-edited Bush v. Gore (Brookings Press, 2000) with William Kristol, Sacred Places, Civic Purposes: Should Government Help Faith-Based Charity? with Ming Hsu Chen (Brookings Press, 2001), and United We Serve: National Service and the Future of Citizenship with Kayla Meltzer Drogosz and Robert E. Litan (Brookings Press 2003). He is the series co-editor to the Pew Forum Dialogues on Religion and Public Life, which includes One Electorate Under God?: A Dialogue on Religion and American Politics (Brookings Press, 2004).

In 1994-95, he was a guest scholar at the Woodrow Wilson International Center. In May 1996, Dionne joined the Brookings Institution as a senior fellow in the Governance Studies Program, then known as Governmental Studies. Dionne began teaching at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute in the fall of 2003.

Dionne grew up in Fall River, Mass. He lives in Bethesda, MD with his wife Mary and their three children, James, Julia and Margot.

Donald Marron
Institute Fellow
Urban Institute

Donald Marron is an expert on U.S. economic policy and federal budgeting. Since joining the Urban Institute as director of the Urban-Brookings Tax Policy Center, his work has focused on tax reform and America's long-run fiscal challenges. From 2002 through early 2009, he served in senior government positions, including as a member of the president's Council of Economic Advisers, acting director of the Congressional Budget Office, and executive director of Congress's Joint Economic Committee. He has also taught at the Georgetown Public Policy Institute and the University of Chicago Graduate School of Business, consulted on major antitrust cases, and served as chief financial officer of a health care software startup. Marron appears frequently at conferences and on TV and radio to discuss economic policy. He also works to popularize economics through his blog (www.dmarron.com) and writings for such publications as CNN Money, the Christian Science Monitor, and the Washington Post. He is the editor of 30-Second Economics, a short book that introduces readers to 50 of the most important theories in economics.

Edward Montgomery
Georgetown Public Policy Institute

Edward Montgomery has served as the Dean of the Georgetown Public Policy Institute (GPPI) since 2010. He is leading the process of creating a new School of Public Policy at Georgetown. Prior to joining GPPI he served on President Obama’s Auto Task Force as Executive Director of the White House Council for Auto Communities and Workers. From 2003 to 2008 he served as the Dean of the College of Behavioral and Social Sciences at the University of Maryland where he had been on the Economics Department faculty since 1990. He also worked in the Clinton administration as Deputy Secretary of the U.S. Department of Labor where he oversaw the operations of a $33 billion agency.

Dean Montgomery is an economist and his research has focused on state and local economic growth, wage and pension determination, savings behavior, productivity and economic dynamics, social insurance programs, and unions. In 2011 he was elected as a Fellow of the National Academic of Public Administration, and he has been a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research for over two decades. He has been on the faculty at Carnegie Mellon University, Michigan State University, and the University of Maryland. In addition he has held visiting positions at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve and The Urban Institute.

Dean Montgomery has a B.S. (Honors) in Economics from Pennsylvania State University, and a M.A. and a Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University.

Isabel Sawhill
Senior Fellow, Economic Studies
Brookings Institution

Isabel V. Sawhill is a senior fellow in Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution. She serves as co-director of the Budgeting for National Priorities project and co-director of the Center on Children and Families. She holds the Cabot Family Chair. In 2009, she began the Social Genome Project, an initiative by the Center on Children and Families that seeks to determine how to increase economic opportunity for disadvantaged children. She served as vice president and director of the Economic Studies program from 2003 to 2006. Prior to joining Brookings, Dr. Sawhill was a senior fellow at The Urban Institute. She also served as an associate director at the Office of Management and Budget from 1993 to 1995, where her responsibilities included all of the human resource programs of the federal government, accounting for one third of the federal budget.

Her research has spanned a wide array of economic and social issues, including fiscal policy, economic growth, poverty and inequality, welfare reform, the well-being of children, and changes in the family. In addition, she has authored or edited numerous books and articles including Creating an Opportunity Society with Ron Haskins; Restoring Fiscal Sanity 2005: Meeting the Long-Run Challenge and Restoring Fiscal Sanity: How to Balance the Budget, both with Alice Rivlin; One Percent for the Kids: New Policies, Brighter Futures for America’s Children; Welfare Reform and Beyond: The Future of the Safety Net; Updating America’s Social Contract: Economic Growth and Opportunity in the New Century; Getting Ahead: Economic and Social Mobility in America; and Challenge to Leadership: Economic and Social Issues for the Next Decade.

Dr. Sawhill helped to found The National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy and now serves as the President of its board. She has been a Visiting Professor at Georgetown Law School, Director of the National Commission for Employment Policy, and President of the Association for Public Policy Analysis and Management. She also serves on a number of boards. She attended Wellesley College and received her Ph.D. from New York University in 1968.

Threats to Growth

Jared Bernstein
Senior Fellow
Center on Budget and Policy Priorities

Jared Bernstein joined the Center in May 2011 as a Senior Fellow. From 2009 to 2011, Bernstein was the Chief Economist and Economic Adviser to Vice President Joe Biden, executive director of the White House Task Force on the Middle Class, and a member of President Obama’s economic team.

Bernstein’s areas of expertise include federal and state economic and fiscal policies, income inequality and mobility, trends in employment and earnings, international comparisons, and the analysis of financial and housing markets.

Prior to joining the Obama administration, Bernstein was a senior economist and the director of the Living Standards Program at the Economic Policy Institute in Washington, D.C.

Between 1995 and 1996, he held the post of deputy chief economist at the U.S. Department of Labor.

He is the author and coauthor of numerous books for both popular and academic audiences, including “Crunch: Why Do I Feel So Squeezed?” and nine editions of "The State of Working America." Bernstein has published extensively in various venues, including The New York Times, Washington Post, Financial Times, and Research in Economics and Statistics. He is an on-air commentator for the cable stations CNBC and MSNBC and hosts jaredbernsteinblog.com.

Bernstein holds a PhD in Social Welfare from Columbia University.

Doug Holtz-Eakin
American Action Forum

Douglas Holtz-Eakin has a distinguished record as an academic, policy adviser, and strategist. Currently he is the President of the American Action Forum and most recently was a Commissioner on the Congressionally-chartered Financial Crisis Inquiry Commission. Since 2001, he has served in a variety of important policy positions. During 2001-2002, he was the Chief Economist of the President’s Council of Economic Advisers (where he had also served during 1989-1990 as a Senior Staff Economist). At CEA he helped to formulate policies addressing the 2000-2001 recession and the aftermath of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. From 2003-2005 he was the 6th Director of the non-partisan Congressional Budget Office, which provides budgetary and policy analysis to the U.S. Congress. During his tenure, CBO assisted Congress as they addressed numerous policies -- notably the 2003 tax cuts (JGTRRA), the Medicare prescription drug bill (MMA), and Social Security reform. During 2007 and 2008 he was Director of Domestic and Economic Policy for the John McCain presidential campaign. Following the 2008 election Dr. Holtz-Eakin was the President of DHE Consulting, an economic and policy consulting firm providing insight and research to a broad cross-section of clients. Dr. Holtz-Eakin has held positions in several Washington-based think tanks. He was Senior Fellow at the Peter G. Peterson Institute for International Economics (2007-2008), and the Director of the Maurice R. Greenberg Center for Geoeconomic Studies and the Paul A. Volcker Chair in International Economics at the Council on Foreign Relations (2006). He has also been a visiting Fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, Heritage Foundation, and American Family Business Foundation.

Dr. Holtz-Eakin built an international reputation as a scholar doing research in areas of applied economic policy, econometric methods, and entrepreneurship. He began his career at Columbia University in 1985 and moved to Syracuse University from 1990 to 2001. At Syracuse, he became Trustee Professor of Economics at the Maxwell School, Chairman of the Department of Economics and Associate Director of the Center for Policy Research.

Dr. Holtz-Eakin serves on the Boards of the Tax Foundation, National Economists Club, and the Research Advisory Board of the Center for Economic Development.

Neil Irwin
Columnist, The Washington Post

Neil Irwin is a Washington Post columnist and the economics editor of Wonkblog, The Post's site for policy news and analysis. Each weekday morning his Econ Agenda column reports and explains the latest trends in economics, finance, and the policies that shape both.

He is the author of "The Alchemists: Three Central Bankers and a World on Fire," a book about the efforts of the world's central banks to combat the financial crisis and its aftermath, to be published in spring 2013 by the Penguin Press. Irwin the Post's beat reporter covering economics and the Federal Reserve for The Post from 2007 to 2012, where he led coverage of the 2007 to 2009 financial crisis, recession and government response.

Irwin often appears on television analyzing economic topics, including on the PBS Newshour, MSNBC, and CNBC.

He has been a reporter at the Post since 2000, and also covered topics including the Washington regional economy, economic development and Internet companies. He was a Knight-Bagehot Fellow in Economic and Business Journalism at Columbia University, from which he has an MBA. Irwin's undergraduate studies were at St. Mary's College of Maryland.

Alice Rivlin
Visiting Professor, Georgetown Public Policy Institute
Senior Fellow, Brookings Institution

Alice M. Rivlin is the Director of the Engelberg Center for Health Care Reform, the Leonard D. Schaeffer Chair in Health Policy Studies and a Senior Fellow in Economic Studies at the Brookings Institution. She is also a Visiting Professor at the Public Policy Institute of Georgetown University. In 2010 President Obama appointed Rivlin to the Simpson-Bowles Commission on the federal budget. She also co-chaired, with former Senator Pete Domenici, the Bipartisan Policy Center’s Debt Reduction Task Force. An expert on fiscal and monetary policy, social policy, and urban issues, Rivlin served as the vice chair of the Federal Reserve Board from 1996 to 1999. She was director of the White House Office of Management and Budget from 1994 to 1996, helping to transform a large budget deficit into substantial surpluses by the end of the decade. She founded the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) in 1975 and served as its director until 1983, creating an independent agency that continues to provide high-quality, nonpartisan analysis to Congress as it works on spending and revenue legislation.

Rivlin is the author of numerous books and articles, among them Systematic Thinking for Social Action and Restoring the American Dream. In 2008, Rivlin received the inaugural Daniel Patrick Moynihan Prize from The AAPSS. Rivlin has received a MacArthur Foundation Prize Fellowship, and has taught at Harvard, George Mason, and New School Universities.

David Stockton
Senior Fellow
The Peterson Institute for International Economics

David J. Stockton, senior fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics, is also senior adviser at Macroeconomics Advisers LLC.

In May 2012, Stockton was commissioned by the Court of the Bank of England to conduct a review of the forecasting capability of the Monetary Policy Committee (MPC). That review encompassed the forecast performance of the MPC, the analyses underlying the forecast, and processes used to produce and communicate the forecast. The review was delivered to the Court in October 2012.

Stockton is the former director of the Division of Research and Statistics at the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. In his position as chief economist, Stockton oversaw the preparation of macroeconomic and financial market analyses and forecasts for the Board of Governors and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) to assist them in decisions related to monetary policy. He began his career at the Board in 1981 as an economist in the Wages, Prices, and Productivity Section of the Division of Research and Statistics with responsibility for the forecasting and analysis of inflation. In 1986 he became senior economist in the Economic Activity Section, where he coordinated the staff economic forecast for the FOMC.

In 1987, Stockton was appointed an officer of the Board and became assistant director and chief of the Economic Activity Section. From 1988 to 2000, he was assistant director, associate director, and deputy director of the Division of Research and Statistics before being appointed director in 2000. He represented the Federal Reserve at many international meetings.

Prior to joining the Board staff in 1981, Stockton was an instructor and lecturer at Yale University in New Haven, CT and Trinity College in Hartford, CT. He served on the Board of Directors of the Securities Investor Protection Corporation (SIPC) from 2000 to 2011. He served as chairman of the Audit and Budget Committee of the corporation. Stockton has published numerous papers in the areas of macroeconomics and labor markets. In addition, he made presentations to various professional organizations, including the American Economic Association, the Econometric Society, the National Bureau of Economic Research, many foreign central banks, private financial institutions, and the general public. He has also been a visiting researcher at Georgetown University. He received his BA and MA (1976) from the University of Connecticut and his MPhil (1978) and PhD (1983) from Yale University.

Strategies to Promote Shared Growth

Robert Atkinson
Information Technology and Innovation Foundation

Robert Atkinson is the founder and president of the Information Technology and Innovation Foundation, a Washington, DC-based technology policy think tank. He is also author of the State New Economy Index series, Innovation Economics: The Race for Global Advantage (Yale, 2012) and The Past And Future Of America’s Economy: Long Waves Of Innovation That Power Cycles Of Growth (Edward Elgar, 2005). He has an extensive background in technology policy, he has conducted ground-breaking research projects on technology and innovation, is a valued adviser to state and national policy makers, and a popular speaker on innovation policy nationally and internationally.

Before coming to ITIF, Dr. Atkinson was Vice President of the Progressive Policy Institute and Director of PPI’s Technology & New Economy Project. While at PPI he wrote numerous research reports on technology and innovation policy, including on issues such as broadband telecommunications, Internet telephony, universal service, e-commerce, e-government, middleman opposition to e-commerce, privacy, copyright, RFID and smart cards, the role of IT in homeland security, the R&D tax credit, offshoring, and growth economics.

Previously Dr. Atkinson served as the first Executive Director of the Rhode Island Economic Policy Council, a public-private partnership including as members the Governor, legislative leaders, and corporate and labor leaders. As head of RIEPC, he was responsible for drafting a comprehensive economic strategic development plan for the state, developing a ten-point economic development plan, and working to successfully implement all ten proposals through the legislative and administrative branches. Prior to that he was Project Director at the former Congressional Office of Technology Assessment. While at OTA, he directed The Technological Reshaping of Metropolitan America, a seminal report examining the impact of the information technology revolution on America’s urban areas.

He is a board member or advisory council member of the Alliance for Public Technology, Internet Education Foundation, NetChoice Coalition, the Pacific Institute for Workforce Innovation, and the University of Oregon Institute for Policy Research and Innovation. He is also chair of the Congressionally-created National Surface Transportation Infrastructure Financing Commission. He also serves on the advisory panel to Americans for Computer Privacy, is an affiliated expert for the New Millennium Research Council, a member of the editorial board of the Journal of Electronic Government and the Journal of Internet Policy, a member of the Reason Foundation’s Mobility Project Advisory Board, a member of the Global Innovation Forum Brain Trust and a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution. Dr. Atkinson was appointed by President Clinton to the Commission on Workers, Communities, and Economic Change in the New Economy. He is also a member of the Task Force on National Security in the Information Age, co-chaired by Markle Foundation president Zoe Baird and former Netscape Communications chairman James Barksdale. In 1999, he was featured in “Who’s Who in America: Finance and Industry.” In 2002, he was awarded the Wharton Infosys Business Transformation Award Silver Medal. In addition, Government Technology Magazine and the Center for Digital Government named him one of the 25 top Doers, Dreamers and Drivers of Information Technology. In 2006, Inc. Magazine listed Atkinson as one of 19 Friends of Small Business in Washington. Ars Technica listed Atkinson as one of 2009’s tech policy People to Watch. Dr. Atkinson has testified before a number of committees in Congress and has appeared in various media outlets including CNN, Fox News, MSNBC, NPR, and NBC Nightly News. He received his Ph.D. in City and Regional Planning from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill in 1989.

John Engler
The Business Roundtable

John Engler is president of the Business Roundtable (BRT), an association of chief executive officers of leading U.S. corporations with a combined workforce of nearly 16 million workers and more than $7 trillion in annual revenues.

A former three-term governor of Michigan, Engler assumed the leadership of Business Roundtable in January 2011 after serving six years as president and CEO of the National Association of Manufacturers.

As BRT president, Engler brings CEO expertise and insights to bear on major challenges facing the United States, including global competitiveness, innovation, economic growth and job creation. BRT-member CEOs lead global companies that invest more than $150 billion annually in research and development and generate nearly $500 billion in sales for small and medium-sized businesses annually.

Through landmark reports, “Roadmap for Growth,” (2010) “Taking Action for America: A CEO Plan for Jobs and Economic Growth,” (2012) and “It’s Time to Act for America’s Future,” (2013) Business Roundtable and Engler promote policies to enhance U.S. global economic leadership, including a restructuring of the nation’s system of taxation to broaden and lower corporate tax rates and move to a competitive territorial tax system.

Under Engler, BRT has also emerged as a preeminent voice for regulatory restraint and transparency. Thanks to BRT-led litigation, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the D.C. Circuit struck down the Security and Exchange Commission’s “proxy access” rule that would have put arbitrary limits on company management. The court agreed with BRT’s arguments that the commission has failed to do economic analysis as required by law.

BRT CEOs’ advocacy also helped persuade President Obama to withdraw an overreaching regulation by the Environmental Protection Agency on ground-level ozone that would have been the most expensive regulation in U.S. history, inhibiting investment and hiring. BRT has also put forth detailed plans for streamlining federal regulation and permitting in two reports, “Achieving Smarter Regulations” (2011) and “Permitting Jobs and Business Investment: Streamlining the Federal Permitting Process (2012).”

Engler came to BRT after heading the National Association of Manufacturers (NAM) since 2004. As NAM president, he was the leading advocate for the nearly 12 million Americans employed directly in manufacturing, educating the public and policymakers on issues affecting this critical sector of the U.S. economy.

Throughout his leadership at both the NAM and Business Roundtable, Mr. Engler has been heavily engaged in education and workforce issues, identifying the pressing shortage of skilled employees as a growing threat to American competitiveness in the 21st Century’s high-tech global economy. During Engler’s tenure as the 46th governor of Michigan from 1991 to 2003, he signed 32 tax cuts into law – saving Michigan taxpayers some $32 billion – and helped create more than 800,000 new jobs, taking the state’s unemployment rate to a record low. The top priority of his administration was improving education, with a focus on high standards, equity and accountability. Syndicated columnist David Broder summarized Engler’s service as governor as a “model of strong, executive leadership.”

He had previously served for 20 years in the Michigan Legislature, including seven years as state Senate majority leader. Elected in 1970, Engler was the youngest person ever elected to the Michigan State House of Representatives. In 1990, he became the first sitting legislator elected Michigan governor in more than 100 years.

Engler serves on the board of directors for Universal Forest Products, K12 Inc., and the Annie E. Casey Foundation and is a past chairman of the National Governors’ Association. The American Academy of Arts and Science has named him a member of the Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences. Born in Mt. Pleasant, Mich., in 1948, Engler graduated from Michigan State University with a bachelor of science in agricultural economics. Later, he earned a law degree from Thomas M. Cooley Law School in Lansing, Mich. He and his wife, Michelle, are parents of triplet daughters born in 1994 – Margaret, Hannah and Madeleine – and live in Virginia.

Harry Holzer
Georgetown Public Policy Institute

Harry Holzer joined the Georgetown Public Policy Institute as Professor of Public Policy in the Fall of 2000. He served as Associate Dean from 2004 through 2006 and was Acting Dean in the Fall of 2006. He is also currently a Senior Research Fellow at the American Institutes for Research, a Senior Affiliate at the Urban Institute, a Senior Affiliate of the National Poverty Center at the University of Michigan, a National Fellow of the Program on Inequality and Social Policy at Harvard University, a Nonresident Senior Fellow at the Brookings Institution, and a Research Affiliate of the Institute for Research on Poverty at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. He is also a faculty director of the Georgetown Center on Poverty, Inequality and Public Policy. He received his BA (1978) and Ph.D. (1983) from Harvard University.

Prior to coming to Georgetown, Professor Holzer served as Chief Economist for the U.S. Department of Labor and professor of economics at Michigan State University. He has also been a Visiting Scholar at the Russell Sage Foundation in 1995, and a Faculty Research Fellow of the National Bureau of Economic Research.

Over most of his career, Professor Holzer's research has focused primarily on the low-wage labor market, and particularly the problems of minority workers in urban areas. In recent years he has worked on the quality of jobs as well as workers in the labor market, and how job quality affects the employment prospects of the disadvantaged as well as worker inequality and insecurity more broadly. He has also written extensively about the employment problems of disadvantaged men, advancement prospects for the working poor, and workforce policy more broadly.

His research on urban poverty and social policy has been funded by grants from the Gates Foundation, Smith Richardson Foundation, Joyce Foundation, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Rockefeller and Ford Foundations, the Russell Sage Foundation, the Institute for Research on Poverty, the Upjohn Institute, the U.S. Department of Labor, the National Science Foundation, Ford Foundation, Mott Foundation, the MacArthur foundation and the Public Policy Institute of California.

Karen Mills
Former Administrator
U.S. Small Business Administration

Karen Gordon Mills was sworn in as the 23rd Administrator of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) in April of 2009 after being appointed by President Barack Obama and unanimously confirmed by the U.S. Senate. She has served in the President’s Cabinet from January of 2012 to August 31, 2013.

As part of the Cabinet, Mills was a key member of the President’s economic leadership team, reflecting the important role that small businesses and entrepreneurs play in our nation’s long-term economic growth and global competitiveness.

At the SBA, Mills leads a team of more than 3,000 employees and manages a portfolio of more than $100 billion in loan guarantees. In addition, the agency helps small businesses access nearly $100 billion in federal contracts each year and supports counseling and technical assistance to more than one million small business owners each year. SBA also provides assistance to small businesses and homeowners following natural disasters.

Over the last four years, Mills has streamlined and simplified SBA’s core loan programs, reduced paperwork, shortened turnaround times and increased transparency across the agency. These efforts have resulted in record-breaking years for SBA lending in 2011 and 2012. And, in 2012, the SBA’s Small Business Investment Company (SBIC) program had its third consecutive record breaking year.

In addition, Mills has led the development of innovative Administration-wide programs that help small businesses create regional clusters, gain access to early stage capital, hire skilled workers, boost exports and tap into commercial supply chains.

Prior to the SBA, Mills held leadership positions in the private sector. Most recently, she was president of the MMP Group, which invested and grew businesses in sectors such as consumer products, food, textiles and industrial components.

In 2007, Maine Governor John Baldacci appointed Mills to chair Maine’s Council on Competitiveness and the Economy, where she focused on regional development initiatives, including a regional economic cluster with Maine’s boatbuilding industry. She also served on the Governor’s Council for the Redevelopment of the Brunswick Naval Air Station.

Mills earned an A.B. in economics from Harvard University and an M.B.A. from Harvard Business School, where she was a Baker Scholar. Additionally, she is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and was vice chairman of the Harvard Overseers.

Amy Sullivan
Director, Next Economy Project
National Journal

Amy Sullivan is a correspondent at National Journal and director of the Next Economy, a joint project of the Atlantic and National Journal. Before joining National Journal, she was a writer and senior editor at TIME Magazine, where she covered politics and religion. She served as the magazine's nation editor for the 2008 election, directing political coverage and the polling operation. Previously, Sullivan was an editor at The Washington Monthly and editorial director of the Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life.

Sullivan's first book, The Party Faithful: How and Why Democrats are Closing the God Gap, was published by Scribner in 2008. It was praised in the New York Times as "savvy, genre-bending, unapologetically faith-based," and former President Bill Clinton enthusiastically endorsed the book: "As American reevaluate partisanship and moral values in the 21st century, Amy Sullivan perceptively identifies how it is possible to be a Democrat and a person of faith."

Her journalism has appeared in publications including the Boston Globe, Los Angeles Times, The New Republic, Slate, and the Washington Post. Sullivan was a 2009 Templeton-Cambridge Journalism Fellow in Science & Religion.

A Michigan native, Sullivan is a graduate of the University of Michigan and Harvard Divinity School. She spent three years as a doctoral student in Princeton's sociology department. Sullivan lives in Washington, DC, with her husband and daughter.